The Left Against the EU

  1. The EU is in a state of ‘profound and uncommon instability’ (p. 1). In addition to the tensions created by the exit of a member state, the EU suffered a serious blow to its legitimacy and internationalist credentials during the refugee and migrant crisis of the 2010s.
  2. The rise of popular discontent among countries across Europe is a direct consequence of the development of the EU and the accompanying loss of popular sovereignty.
  3. The policies of the EU to confront the Eurozone crisis not only failed to institute any sort of equality, but instead ‘further favoured capital while worsening the conditions of labour’ (p. 5).
  4. The EU has not generated convergence within Europe, instead creating a core (France, the Netherlands, Austria, Italy (with one foot outside the core), and Germany) with a Southern periphery (Spain, Portugal, and Greece) and a Central European periphery (Poland, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovakia, and Slovenia). It is the economic dynamic of the EU and the EMU that makes divergence, not convergence, a necessary outcome of EU membership.
  5. As the failure of the SYRIZA government in Greece in 2015 clearly shows, reform of the EU is impossible. This is not due to the weakness of current intra-European Left alliances, but because of the very nature of the institution of the EU itself.



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George Hoare

George Hoare


New book: 'The End of the End of History' (Zero, 2021). Other books include 'An Introduction to Antonio Gramsci ' (Bloomsbury).